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最全的动词不定式知识汇总及专项训练

   动词不定式有带to的不定式和省略to的不定式两种。动词不定式不能做句子的谓语,但它具有动词的特征,可以有自己的宾语、状语及逻辑主语。

一、动词不定式的特征

1、及物动词的不定式形式,其后可以跟宾语。

No one knows why he agreed to do the film.

It is very important to finish your homeword in time.

2、不定式可以被状语修饰

He aksed me to read the letter aloud.

She told me to drive the car carefully.

3、不定式没有人称和数的变化,不受主语的人称和单复数的限定或影响。

She likes to play the piano.

I hope to finish reading the book tonight.

4、不定式的复合结构的构成

1It is+adj+ for sb to do sth.在这个结构中,形容词说明不定式的特征,

例如:It's really difficult for me to learn English.

2)  It is+adj+ of  sb to do sth.在这个结构中,形容词说明逻辑主语的的特征,

例如:It's impolite of you to visit someone without telling him in advance.

二、不定式的时态与语态

不定式所表示的动作具有时间先后顺序及主动、被动形式,以write为例说明

 

主动形式

被动形式

一般式

To write

To be written

进行式

To be writing

 

完成式

To have written

To have been written

1、 不定式的一般式

一般式表示的动作通常与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生或者在谓语动词表示的动作之后发生。

I often hear my neighbour play the piano in the next room.  同时发生

I hope to see you next week.之后发生

2、 不定式的进行式

不定式的进行式表示的动作一般与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生。

I hear my neighbour playing the piano in the next room.

He seems bo be thinking deeply,without noticing me passing him.

3、不定式的完成式

不定式的进行式表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前

My teacher seemed to have known everything.

4、 不定式的被动形式

当不定式的逻辑主语是其所表示的动作的承受者时,一般要用被动形式。

一般式的被动形式通常表示将来意义,如:

The car needs to be repaired before we go on a trip.

The meeting is to be held tomorrow.

完成式的被动形式表示动作发生在谓语动词之前

The room seems to have been tidied up already.

三、不定式的句法功能

1、做主语

不定式在句子中做主语,相当于名词或代词的作用。不定式作主语往往用形式主语it 代替,然后将不定式放在句尾。

To hear your voice is very nice=It’s so nice to hear your voice.

To lock the car is very necessary for you when you do not use it=It’s necessary for you to lock the car when you do not use it.

It take/took ……. to do sth花费……..做某事也是这种用法。

It take me three hours to finish the work.

注意:

1)当不定式作主语的句子中又有一个不定式作表语时,不能用It is… to…的句型

()To see is to believe. 百闻不如一见。 ()It is to believe to see.

2) 不定式作为句子成分时,动词用单数形式。

2、不定式作表语

不定式作表语表示主语的职业、职责或性质等

Our duty is to help the young children to grow better.

通常用不定式作表语的情况有:

1) 主语是aimpurpose  idea  intention  plan  wish  decision  choice等词时。

The intention of this film is to introduce the popular film star.

My wish is to travel around the wordl.

2) 主语是不定式时,此时主语多表示条件,表语表示目的或者结果。

To learn a language is to use it.

To save is to produce.

3、 不定式作宾主

不定式可以作动词的宾语,一般不作介词的宾语,但“疑问代词+不定式”可作介词的宾语。

I really like to watch football matches.

I am interested in what to do but not how to do it.

常用不定式作宾语的动词集合:

agree

choose

expect

beg

offer

promise

arrange

decide

fail

manage

refuse

demand

afford

determine

hope

prepare

want

pretend

ask

dare

help

plan

wish

 

4、 作补足语

有些动词需用带to的不定式作补足语,有的则需要用不带to的不定式作补足语。具体列表如下:

跟带to的不定式作宾补

跟带to be +形容词或名词作宾补

跟不带to的不定式作宾补

advise

get

teach

believe

imagine

feel

make

allow

invite

wish

consider

know

hear

notice

ask

order

warn

declare

prove

have

see

expect

tell

want

find

suppose

let

watch

He advised us to discuss the report immediately.

I believe what you said to be true.

I’ll have my friend repair my computer.

He noticed a tall man enter the office.

5、 作定语

不定式作定语须放在被修饰词的后面,与被修饰词有逻辑上的主谓、动宾或同位等关系。

She is always the last to hand in homework.

Have you got anything to do this evening?

I have made a plan to learn English.

注意:

1) 不及物动物的不定式形式与被修饰词构成逻辑上的动宾关系,动词后应该加上必要的介词,使之能与其逻辑宾语搭配。

如:a pen to write with    exciting music to listen to

2) 不定式修饰的名词是timeplaceway时,其后习惯上常省略介词。

This is the best way to work out this proble (in).

We are looking for a place to lie (in)

3) 表示将来意义或者被修饰词是序数词、最高级、the only/the last等或被该类词修饰时,多用不定式作定语。

That is the only way we can imagine to reduce the cost.

4) 名词chance,plan,way,need,intention等的定语一般用不定式。

At last he had a chance to go abroad.

6、 作状语

不定式作状语一般表示目的、原因、结果、条件等,表示原因、结果时一般不放在句首。

I stopped the car to take a short break as I was feeling tired.表示目的

I’m sorry to have troubled you so much. 表示原因

He woke up and looked out of the window to find the world outside greatly changed。表示结果

To turn to the left,you could find a post office.表示条件

不定式做目的状语时一般放在句首,有时也可位于句中或者句末,为了强调还可用in order to doso as to do,so as to do 不能放在句首。

不定式作结果状语常表示令人意外的情况,特别是在不定式前面带有only

I arrived only to find that the others had already left.我到了,却发现别人都已离开了。

7、 独立成份

这种不定式独立于句子之外,表示说话者的态度、语气等,又称评论性状语。

To tell the truth,we don’t want to include you.

You should tell her the truth,to be frank.

常用的作独立成份的不定式有:

To tell (you) the truth,说实话; to be honest  诚实地说; to put it briefly 简言之; to be frank 坦诚地说;

To begin with 首先; to start with 首先。

四、不定式的省略

为了避免重复前面已出现的动词,在使用不定式时常可以省略不定式中的动词 ,只保留to,在一些习惯用法中,有时to 也可以省略。

I shall go if you wish me to.

Why didn’t you come to my birthday party?You were told to.

Will you join us in a walk?回答I’ll be glad to.

If you wish/want/like (to),I would like to treat you to tea this evening.

You shouldn’t come in unless asked (to)

注意

不定式在askadvisepersuadewishallowtell等后作宾语补足语时,常省略与前边相同的动词 ,只保留to.

She wants to come but her parents won’t allow he to.

若不定式结构中有be动词或助动词have,省略时还要保留be have

Are you a teacher? 回答 I used to be.

五、不定式的主动形式表示被动意义

1、不定式作定语与被修饰的词有动宾关系,且与句中另一名词或代词有逻辑上的主谓关系时。

We have lots of work to do.

Have you got anything to say before you end this meeting?

2、不定式前有说明该不定式特性的性质形容词时;

常见的此类形容词有:fit  easy  hard  difficult  interesting  heavy  pleasant  comfortable  safe  dangerous  implssible等。

The water is not fit to drink,so hold out until we get to a shop.

Thoughts and feelings of all kinds are easy to communicate with the piano.

3、不定式与疑问代词连用时主动表被动

What to do next hasn’t been decided.

In society,I really don’t know who to compete fairly with.

4blame责备、let出租  等的不定式在be动词后作表语时。

I felt I was to balme for this accident.

This house is to let.

六、动词不定式省略to的情况:

1)不定式在感观动词(see,notice,look at,listen to,hear,watch,feel,observe)、使役动词(let,make,have)后作宾语补足语时,通常省去to.如:

I have my students come early.

2)不定式在help后作宾补时,可带to,也可省略to.如:

I helped himtofind his lost watch.

注意:以上两种情况变成被动语态时要加上to.如:

She was seen to go into the classroom.

3)如果两个或多个不定式并列使用时,常在第一个不定式前面加to,后面一般都省略.如:

To try and fail is better than not to try at all.

动词不定式可在句中作主语、表语或同位语、宾语、状语、定语等,但不能单独用作谓语。

七、不定式的特殊句型too…to…

1too…to  太以至于

He is too excited to speak.

Can I help you ? 需要我帮忙吗?

Well, I’m afraid the box is too heavy for you to carry it, but thank you all the same.

不用了。这箱子太重,恐怕你搬不动。谢谢您。

2) 如在too前有否定词,则整个句子用否定词表达肯定, too 后那个词表达一种委婉含义,意 为"不太"

  It’s never too late to mend. (谚语)

 改过不嫌晚。

3) 当too 前面有only, all, but时,意思是:非常等于very

  I’m only too pleased to be able to help you. 我非常高兴能帮助你。

  He was but too eager to get home. 他非常想回家。

八、动名词与不定式语义不同的词:

  1 stop to do   stop doing 

  2 forget to do    forget doing

  3 remember to do   remember doing 

  4 regret to do   regret doing

  5 cease to do   cease doing 

  6 try to do   try doing

  7 go on to do    go on doing 

  8 afraid to do    afraid doing

  9 interested to do    interested doing 

 10 mean to do     mean doing

 11 begin/ start to do    begin/ start doing 

 

巩固性练习:

1. ——Can the project be finished as planned?

——Sure, ____ it completed in time, we’ll work two more hours a day.

A. having gotB. to getC. gettingD. get

2. ——Is Bob still performing?

——I’m afraid not. He is said ____ the stage already as he has become an official.

A. to have leftB. to leave

C. to have been leftD. to be left

3. We went to the airport to see Mr. Smith off, but we hurried there____ the plane ____ off

A. finding; takingB. to find; taken

C. finding; to takeD. to find; had taken

4. The flu is believed ____ by viruses that like to reproduce in the cells inside the human nose and throat.

A. causingB. being caused

C. to be causedD. be have caused

5. Helen had to shout ____ above the sound of the music.

A. making herself hearB. to make herself hear

C. making herself heard D. to make herself heard

6. ——Why do you look so sad?

——There are so many problems ____.

A. remaining to settleB. remained settling

C. remaining to be settledD. remained to be settled

7. I’d rather read than watch television; the programs seem ____ all the time.

A. to get worseB. to have got worse

C. that it is getting worseD. to be getting worse

8. Everyone here will thank the firefighters for the things they have done to prevent fires ____ the environment safer.

A. makeB. to makingC. to makeD. from making

9. Pleasant as they made it ____, we felt tired after the long journey.

A. to travelB. travelC. traveledD. traveling

10. ——Really nice ____ you. I’m going to miss you.

——Don’t forget to give me a ring, will you?

A. knowsB. to know

C. to have knownD. knew

11. The party was successful, but we thought it a pity not ____ you.

A. inviteB. to invite

C. to have invitedD. inviting

12. The man we followed suddenly stopped and looked as if ____ whether he was going in the right direction.

A. seeingB. having seenC. to seeD. to have seen

13. ____ with such great difficulty, Jack felt at a loss ____.

A. Facing; what to sayB. Faced; what to say

C. Having faced; how to tellD. Being faced; how to speak

14. The teacher ____ at the desk ____ the exam papers.

A. sat; to be correctingB. sat down; to correct

C. sat; to correctD. was sitting down; correcting

15. With a lot of difficult problems ____, the newly-elected president is having a hard time.

A. settledB. settlingC. to settleD. being settled

16. The way you think of ____ our living conditions sounds reasonable

A. improveB. to improveC. improvingD. improvement

17. I meant ____ but when I was leaving I couldn’t find her anywhere.

A. to doB. toC. doingD. doing to

18. Charles Babbage is generally considered ____ the first computer. A. to inventB. inventing

C. to have inventedD. having invented

19. My advisor encouraged ____ a summer course to improve my writing skills.

A. for me takingB. me taking

C. for me to take D. me to take

20. The doctor examined the patient carefully, only ____ she was not seriously ill.

1.B 2.A 3.D 4.C 5.D 6.C 7.D 8.C 9.A 10.C 11.C 12.C 13.B 14.B 15.C 16.B 17.B 18.C 19.D 20.B foundB. to findC. findingD. to be found

 

1.B 2.A 3.D 4.C 5.D 6.C 7.D 8.C 9.A 10.C 11.C 12.C 13.B 14.B 15.C 16.B 17.B 18.C 19.D 20.B foundB. to findC. findingD. to be found

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